Donnerstag, 30 Mai, 2024

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Pi-Hole installieren

Pi-Hole Systemvoraussetzungen

RessourcePi-Hole
CPU1 Kern
RAM512 GB
Festplatte1 GB

System Updaten & Curl installieren

apt update && apt upgrade -y && apt install curl -y && apt autoremove && apt autoclean

Pi-Hole installieren

curl -sSL https://install.pi-hole.net | bash

Admin Webpage

Interface: http://deineIP/admin

Unbound installieren

sudo apt install unbound -y
wget https://www.internic.net/domain/named.root -qO- | sudo tee /var/lib/unbound/root.hints
nano /etc/unbound/unbound.conf.d/pi-hole.conf
server:
    # If no logfile is specified, syslog is used
    # logfile: "/var/log/unbound/unbound.log"
    verbosity: 0
    interface: 127.0.0.1
    port: 5335
    do-ip4: yes
    do-udp: yes
    do-tcp: yes
    # May be set to yes if you have IPv6 connectivity
    do-ip6: no
    # You want to leave this to no unless you have *native* IPv6. With 6to4 and
    # Terredo tunnels your web browser should favor IPv4 for the same reasons
    prefer-ip6: no
    # Use this only when you downloaded the list of primary root servers!
    # If you use the default dns-root-data package, unbound will find it automatically
    #root-hints: "/var/lib/unbound/root.hints"
    # Trust glue only if it is within the server's authority
    harden-glue: yes
    # Require DNSSEC data for trust-anchored zones, if such data is absent, the zone becomes BOGUS
    harden-dnssec-stripped: yes
    # Don't use Capitalization randomization as it known to cause DNSSEC issues sometimes
    # see https://discourse.pi-hole.net/t/unbound-stubby-or-dnscrypt-proxy/9378 for further details
    use-caps-for-id: no
    # Reduce EDNS reassembly buffer size.
    # IP fragmentation is unreliable on the Internet today, and can cause
    # transmission failures when large DNS messages are sent via UDP. Even
    # when fragmentation does work, it may not be secure; it is theoretically
    # possible to spoof parts of a fragmented DNS message, without easy
    # detection at the receiving end. Recently, there was an excellent study
    # >>> Defragmenting DNS - Determining the optimal maximum UDP response size for DNS <<<
    # by Axel Koolhaas, and Tjeerd Slokker (https://indico.dns-oarc.net/event/36/contributions/776/)
    # in collaboration with NLnet Labs explored DNS using real world data from the
    # the RIPE Atlas probes and the researchers suggested different values for
    # IPv4 and IPv6 and in different scenarios. They advise that servers should
    # be configured to limit DNS messages sent over UDP to a size that will not
    # trigger fragmentation on typical network links. DNS servers can switch
    # from UDP to TCP when a DNS response is too big to fit in this limited
    # buffer size. This value has also been suggested in DNS Flag Day 2020.
    edns-buffer-size: 1232
    # Perform prefetching of close to expired message cache entries
    # This only applies to domains that have been frequently queried
    prefetch: yes
    # One thread should be sufficient, can be increased on beefy machines. In reality for most users running on small networks or on a single machine, it should be unnecessary to seek performance enhancement by increasing num-threads above 1.
    num-threads: 1
    # Ensure kernel buffer is large enough to not lose messages in traffic spikes
    so-rcvbuf: 1m
    # Ensure privacy of local IP ranges
    private-address: 192.168.0.0/16
    private-address: 169.254.0.0/16
    private-address: 172.16.0.0/12
    private-address: 10.0.0.0/8
    private-address: fd00::/8
    private-address: fe80::/10
sudo service unbound restart
dig pi-hole.net @127.0.0.1 -p 5335

Konfiguriere zu SchlussPi-hole so, dass es deinen rekursiven DNS-Server verwendet, indem Du folgende benutzerdefinierte DNS angibst.

127.0.0.1#5335
pi-hole Unbound DNS custom upstream server

Testvalidierung

Der erste Befehl sollte einen Statusbericht von SERVFAIL und keine IP-Adresse liefern. Der zweite sollte NOERROR plus eine IP-Adresse ausgeben.

dig fail01.dnssec.works @127.0.0.1 -p 5335
dig dnssec.works @127.0.0.1 -p 5335

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